It’s not clear what causes prostate cancer.
Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when some cells in your prostate become abnormal. Mutations in the abnormal cells’ DNA cause the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can grow to invade nearby tissue. Some abnormal cells can break off and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
Factors that can increase your risk of prostate cancer include:
Complications of prostate cancer and its treatments include:
If you have signs or symptoms that worry you, start by seeing your family doctor or a general practitioner.
If your doctor suspects you may have a problem with your prostate, you may be referred to a urinary tract specialist (urologist). If you’re diagnosed with prostate cancer, you may be referred to a cancer specialist (oncologist) or a specialist who uses radiation therapy to treat cancer (radiation oncologist).
Because appointments can be brief, and because there’s often a lot of ground to cover, it’s a good idea to be prepared. Here’s some information to help you get ready and what to expect from your doctor.
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may allow more time later to cover other points you want to address. Your doctor may ask: